Originally Posted by psneeld
From a guy who has knowledge in those arenas....while specific...it does show that uninsulated and solid wire isn't ALWAYS specifically prohibited...thus why it was and still seen on boats. Even by organizations that seemingly would be as stringent as ABYC.
Here are the DNV/GL (Det Norske Veritas/Germanische Lloyds)
"F.2.3 The conductors of movable wires shall be finely stranded.
The conductors of permanently laid cables and wires shall be made of stranded copper conductors
(class 2) or flexible stranded copper conductors (class 5).
Solid conductors up to 4 mm2 in cross-section are permitted for final subcircuits of room lighting and
space heating systems in the accommodation and for special cables of TV and multimedia applications."
4mm2 is 12 AWG wire. All members of the International Association of Class Societies (IACS) accept the rules of each member.
In the matter of the bonding wire, it is a bonding wire, it counts as a grounding strap and does not even have to be insulated. It just has to be metal and conductive.
Lloyds Rules for Classification and Construction
VI Additional Rules and Guidelines:
4.7.2 Ships with a non-metallic hull
For the protection of the metallic appendages, anodes
applied to the hull shall be conductively connected
(using either welding straps or cables) with the parts to
be protected, whereby in each case care shall be taken
to ensure a metallically conducting connection.
That is interesting about electric heating. One of my wall electric heaters was wired with solid copper wiring, 12 gauge, 50 years ago and still works, so another reason for me not to change it out. And my Princess stove also used solid copper wire, 10 gauge.
It has certainly been safe all those decades like that.
For high current devices, maybe safer than stranded, since a break would be a definite power off situation, but a partial break as in individual strands breaking would lower the ampacity capability at that connection, and maybe overheat and start a fire if fine stranded wire was used for many decades, unexpected stuff happens over long periods of time.
Solid copper wiring, an attached end breaks off == loss of power to device, no overheating due to zero wire strand left to bear the load.
Multi Strand copper wiring, an attached end partially breaks, less remaining strands to carry the load, overheat certain and possible fire is result.